Advanced Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Post Operative Spine Rehab-Laminectomy/Discetomy -
Phase I: Immediate post Surgical Phase (IPSP) 0-6 weeks
1. Decrease pain and inflammation.
2. Increase activity tolerance.
3. Encourage wound healing.
4. Increase aerobic tolerance (independent with home program 20 min tolerance to exercise).
5. Educate on body mechanics and posture for bed mobility
1. Prevent excessive initial mobility or stress on tissues
2. Avoid lifting, twisting and bending of the spine.
1. Education on bed mobility and transfers with proper spine positioning.
2. Reinforce basic post-op home exercise program including
a. Ankle pumps
b. Long arc and short arc quadriceps
c. Diaphragmatic breathing
d. Relaxation exercises
e. Abdominal isometric exercises
3. Increase tolerance to walking to ½ mile daily (15-30 min cardiovascular activity)
4. Reinforce sitting, standing and ADL modifications with neutral spine and proper body mechanics.
Criteria for progression:
1. Pain and swelling within tolerance.
2. Independent HEP
3. Tolerance of 15 min of exercise and 15-30 min of cardiovascular exercise.
4. Functional ADL for self care/hygiene
Phase II: Initiation of OP-PT 6-9 weeks/2-3 times per week
1. Patient education/Back school
2. Reestablish neuromuscular recruitment of the multifidus (Functional dynamic lumbar stability)
3. Normalization of flexibility deficits in extremities
4. Normalization of any gait deviations
5. Return to activities of daily living
6. Improve positional tolerances for return to work
1. Avoid lumbar loading
2. Avoid twisting and bending of the lumbar spine.
3. Limit lumbar extension
- Back Education Program
- Anatomy, Pathology, & Biomechanics
- Reinforce neutral spine positioning
- Body mechanics and training: Performance of functional activities with neutral spine and
- Manual Therapy:
- Grade 1 or grade 2 joint mobs for neuromodulation of pain
- Scar tissue mobilization. Educate patient on self mobilization of scar.
- Train Neutral lumbar position: Create independent movement of the pelvis and then find and
maintain a neutral position of the lumbar spine.
- Diaphragmatic breathing: Proper breathing technique without the use of accessory respiratory
- Pelvic stabilization exercises with emphasis on transverse abdominals and multifidus
- Unloaded trunk ROM exercises: Lumbar spine flexion and extension in quadruped (cat
camel) Pelvic rocks, Wig wags, Pelvic clocks. All performed in neutral and protective
- Hip and knee flexibility exercises: Decreases stress on lumbar spine and makes it easier to
maintain neutral spine. (hamstrings, piriformis, gluteal, quads, hip flexors, gastroc, soleus etc)
- Initiate acquatics (if available and indicated)
- Cardiovascular training, treadmill, UBE, stationary bike (patient must have good pelvic
- Initiate balance exercises.
- Address other mechanical restrictions as needed
- Modalities for symptom modulation if needed
Criteria for progression:
1. Patient has working knowledge of body and lifting mechanics.
2. Able to hold co-contraction for 60 sec
3. Cardiovascular tolerance to 30 min/day
4. Dynamic sitting and standing tolerance of 15-60 min
Phase III: Advanced PT 9-12 weeks/2-3 times per week.
1. Progress with strengthening and flexibility exercises.
2. Advanced lifting and posture training
3. Address return to work/recreational activity concerns
4. Advanced stabilization and trunk control
- Activity specific training
- Neural mobilization exercises.
- Exercises (Advanced stabilization and proprioceptive training, Multi-plane
- Wk 9-10: Increasing complexity and load of exercises maintaining lumbar spine
stability: Single leg bridging, bridging on unsteady surfaces, alternate arm an leg
extensions in quadruped, prone on ball leg and arm extensions (quadruped),
functional co-contractions during walking increasing speed) and other activities
(kneeling, squatting, stairs etc)
- Wk 10-12: Co-ordination exercises: High level stabilization exercises on the exercise
ball, changing speeds of walking, running. Side bridges, extension rolls, crunches
- Advanced cardiovascular training
- Advanced Hip/Core strengthening exercises: Functional exercises like chops/diagonal lifts,
- Lifting training with proper posture. (floor to waist and waist to shoulder level)
- Body mechanics drills
- FCE if appropriate
Criteria for discharge:
1. Manual muscle testing is within functional limits
2. Independent with gym program
3. Trunk ROM within functional limits
Pearls of rehab:
- Focus on local muscle systems (tonic/postural/stabilizing) lumbar multifidus, internal oblique,
transverse abdominals, psoas major, quadratus lumborum, lumbar portion of lumbar iliocostalis
lumborum before global (phasic/primary movers) such as rectus abdominals, external oblique,
and portion of iliocostalis lumborum. Local muscles are shorter in length and closer to axis or
rotation while the global muscles have no direct attachment on the spine.
- Avoid preloading the spine in posterior pelvic tilt.
- Avoid prone upper body extensions, or prone leg extensions to avoid high compressive load of
the already weakened spine)
- No-pain no gain axiom usually does not apply to the spine
- Because of diurnal variations in fluid level of the intervertebral disks (more hydrated early
morning) it would be unwise to perform full range spinal motions (bending) shortly after rising
from the bed
- Focus on low load high repetitions to improve endurance rather than high load low repetition for
- There is some evidence that low back exercises are most beneficial when performed daily.
- Focus on pain relief with Oswestry scores of 40-60, with scores of 20-40 focus on decreasing
pain, muscle re-education, gradual strengthening, flexibility and improve cardiovascular
endurance, with scores less than 20 focus on work simulation and progressive strengthening.